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Xử lý nước thải phân tán - Một ngành công nghiệp đầy hứu hẹn cho Hà Nội và Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh

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Bài gửi by Nguyễn Hiếu 6/6/2011, 10:50 pm

Rationale of the project
During the last 20 years Vietnam has undergone a dramatic economic and social transformation, which has led to considerable improvements in the overall well being of the vast majority of Vietnamese people. An important drawback of this economic evolution is the increasing pollution of the environment. Natural water bodies are heavily polluted, with BOD, COD concentrations exceeding by 300-1000% national quality standards. This quite alarming state of the natural water bodies in urban areas is to an important extend due to the sanitation systems in place in almost all Vietnamese cities: Domestic wastewater is discharged, with rudimentary pre-treatment by septic tanks, into combined sewerage systems, open channels and natural ponds. The construction of modern centralised treatment facilities is under consideration, but financial constraints make matters difficult. It must be assumed that in future the (pre-) treatment of domestic wastewater on household level will keep its crucial role for urban environmental protection.
Why decentralised sanitation?
Decentralisation of wastewater management is worldwide increasingly gaining recognition for different reasons. A decentralised approach in wastewater management:
• broadens the technology options permitting tailoring the solutions to the prevailing conditions;
• minimises the freshwater requirements for waste transportation;
• reduces the risks associated with system failure;
• permits a segregation of different wastewater types (greywater, blackwater, stormwater) at source;
• increases local wastewater reuse opportunities;
• permits incremental development and investment in the community wastewater system;
• fits the devolution process of management responsibilities currently experienced in Vietnamese cities.
Public participation in decentralized wastewater management
Nowadays, besides clear responsibilities of local administration and public service enterprises, it is confirmed the role of different actors in water supply and environmental sanitation systems management. Those are local users, including eldery, women and children, mass organizations, and private sector, where the households play the core role as the center of the service and the resource for any selection and decision making. Decentralized wastewater management is an approach enabling increasing of position of householders, mobilizing their resources and responsibility. Decentralized wastewater management also shows the needs of provision of guidance on how to plan, design, construct, operate and maintain sanitation systems which fit this specific context which is typical for Vietnam to the public and all related stakeholders.
Goal of the DESA project
The DESA project at CEETIA, under the leadership of Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Viet Anh, aims at bridging the gap between responsibilities and capacities of local authorities, practitioners and users in the field of wastewater management by providing scientific based knowledge on appropriate wastewater treatment systems and management options. The main goal of the DESA sub-project is thus to develop technical guidelines for the design, the operation and the maintenance of decentralised, low-cost wastewater treatment systems.
Research on technical options
DESA is a continuation of DEWATS which started in 1998 and finished in 2002. DESA - technical focused mainly on the development of appropriate treatment options for domestic blackwater (toilet wastewater) as alternative to the conventional septic tank, which is institutionally well anchored in Vietnam as treatment system for domestic wastewater. It was estimated that up to 80 per cent of the households in urban Hanoi and in other cities are equipped with such a pre-treatment system. Unfortunately most septic tanks show low treatment efficiencies (COD and suspended solids removal rates are usually below 50%) and thus don’t contribute as expected to the protection of the urban environment.
Lab-scale research on different anaerobic treatment options such as the baffled septic tank or the anaerobic filter has clearly demonstrated that suitable alternatives to the conventional septic tank exist which enable considerable treatment improvements. The outcomes of this research are presented on page 6.
In order to confirm the findings of the lab-scale research, more than 10 full-scale treatment systems were implemented in and around Hanoi for the treatment of domestic wastewater on household or neighbourhood level. These units are being monitored and evaluated. First findings are presented on page 7.
Research on non-technical issues
CEETIA also looks at non-technical aspects of decentralised wastewater management. Several studies were and are currently being conducted in collaboration with national and international partners. The studies aim at identifying the potential and limitations of applying decentralised wastewater management concepts. The main studies are highlighted below:
 “Capacity building for effective decentralised wastewater management (DWWM) in Vietnam”, in collaboration with GHK International, United Kingdom (see list of relevant publications, page 3).
 “Local Management Schemes for Decentralised Sanitation in Vietnam“ (see page 10).
 “Domestic wastewater flows in Hanoi” (see page11).
 “Impacts of solid waste on drainage system in Hanoi city” (see List of publications).
 “Production of synthetic toilet wastewater for research purposes” (see page Cool.
 “Material Flow Analysis for Environmental Sanitation Planning”.
The DESA project under the framework of the ESTNV project will last until end of 2007. The main focus in the remaining period is put on the capitalization and dissemination of the research outcomes through publications and organization of training courses for local authorities and practitioners. Furthermore, a DESA programme concept will be developed, which shall enable CEETIA to conduct research on decentralized wastewater management after completion of the ESTNV project.
Additional information & contact
Documents produced by CEETIA on decentralised wastewater management may be downloaded from the CEETIA-ESTNV webpage
Nguyễn Hiếu
Nguyễn Hiếu
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Tổng số bài gửi : 127
Age : 40
Đến từ : Hà Nội
Nghề nghiệp : Cấp thoái nước và Môi trường nước + khác
Đơn vị công tác : Đại học Xây Dựng
Câu nói ưa thích : Giáo sư Xoay - Cù Trọng Xoay - Xoày Trọng Cu
Points : 246
Reputation : 5
Registration date : 04/08/2010

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